Pedestrian Head Protection Performance Tests

Testing Methods

Car accidents in which pedestrians are hit by cars moving at a certain speed and their heads collided against car bonnets or front windshield are assumed. An adult or a child pedestria head simulated impactor (headimpactor) are projected toward the car bonnet, etc., from the testing machine. The impact received by the head impactors is measured and then evaluated using head injury criterion (HIC).
The projecting speed in the domestic technical regu tion is 32km/h (The impact speed received by the pedestrian against the car is equivalent to 40km/h.) In the Car Assessment, the impact speed increased 10% to 35km/h (Received impact speed is equivalent to 44km/h.) Impact angles differ according to the shape of the front part of 3 types of vehicles; sedan, SUV, and One Box.

(1) Impact Test Area
The distance between the ground and the evaluated areas of the cars,i.e., Wrap Around Distance (WAD) is measured according to the length of the area where the pedestrians' heads hit in accidents. Impact location area for adults and children's head is set based on the data of actual accidents.
In the crosswise direction, the side line of the impact test area is from the line obtained by tracing the contact points between a straight edge and the side of the bonnet where the straight edge contacts the bonnet bumper at 45 degrees(Bonnet Side Reference Line) to the inside half diameter of the head impactor.

(2) Vehicle type and the impact condition
Test vehicles are divided by the vehicle type. Tests are done in each testing area under each impact condition.


Vehicle type (shape of vehicle front surface)
Vehicle type Definition
Type 1 With the bonnet leading edge height less than 835mm
Type 2 With the bonnet leading edge height more than 835mm
Type 3 With the bonnet angle more than 30º


  Area I Area II Area III
Impact 165mm, 4.5kg 165mm, 3.5kg 165mm, 3.5kg
WAD 1700-2100mm 1350-1700mm 1000-1350mm
Impact
Velocity
Bonnet Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
35km/h
Windshield Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Impact
Angle
Bonnet Type 1
Type 2
Type 3

65º
90º
50º

65º
60º
25º
65º
60º
25º
Windshield Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
40º
45º

Pedestrian Head Protection technical regulation that regulates impact relieving performanceof the bonnets will be introduced for passenger cars and certain cargo vehicles.
This technical regulation has heen introduced accordingly from September of 2005 (September of 2007 for cars with extremely low vehicle height, cars requiringhigh durability,cargo cars, full cab over cars, and hybrid cars.)