Collision Safety Performance Tests

Testing Methods

Full-wrap frontal collision test

Passenger cars are designed with a structure and features meant to reduce the degree of injury to passengers in the event of a collision. The method of testing used to evaluate these features must ensure that the accidents simulated are as realistic as possible and that the data obtained from the tests is highly reliable.
In this test, dummies are placed in both the driver's and front passenger's seats and the vehicle is made to collide with a concrete barrier at a rate of 55 km/h. The dummies are checked for injuries to the head, neck, chest and legs, the vehicle is checked for damage and deformation, and the results are used to evaluate the degree of passenger protection in 5 levels. Actual collisions of this type tend to occur at speeds lower than that of this test. Note that the results of this test do not apply to collisions at extremely high speeds, and other types of collisions such as when passengers are not wearing seatbelts, and collisions in which one of the vehicles is a large truck. Additionally, the results of this test can only be compared in the case of vehicles with similar masses. In other words, when the mass of test vehicles is similar, the safety performance of vehicles with higher ratings is greater than those with lower ratings.

Dummy for full-wrap frontal collision test
 The Hybrid Ⅲ dummy is used to represent a human body of the driver and front passenger. This dummy was developed in the United States and represents the average adult male (175 cm in height and 78 kg in mass (about 85kg including attachments)).

Offset frontal collision test [Newly introduced from FY2009 (partially)]

In this test, dummies are placed in the driver's and rear passenger's seats and the test vehicle is made to collide head-on on the driver's side (at an offset of 40%) with an aluminum honeycomb at a rate of 64km/h. The dummies are measured for injuries to the head, neck, chest, abdomen (rear passenger's seat only) and legs, the vehicle is checked for damage and deformation, and the results are used to evaluate the degree of passenger protection in 5 levels.
While dummies had been placed in the driver's and front passenger's seats until FY2008, a male dummy placed in the front passenger's seat was replaced to female one and this female dummy was placed in the rear seat and " Rear Seat Passenger's Protection for Frontal Collision Performance Evaluation" started in FY2009.
Because this test involves impact with only one part of the vehicle, the force exerted on the dummy is less than in a full-wrap frontal collision. However, while the full-wrap frontal collision test is well suited to evaluating restraining devices (such as air bags and seatbelts) used to protect passengers, in this test there is a significant degree of deformation to the body of the vehicle, which makes it well suited to evaluating aggresiveness to passengers from such deformations.
Actual collisions of this type tend to occur at speeds lower than that of this test. Note that the results of this test do not apply to collisions at extremely high speeds, and other types of collisions such as when passengers are not wearing seatbelts, and collisions in which one of the vehicles is a large truck.
Additionally, the results of this test can only be compared in the case of vehicles with similar masses.


Dummies for offset frontal collision test
The same dummy as full-wrap frontal-collision one is placed in the driver's seat. The Hybrid Ⅲ adult female dummy (150 cm in height and 49 kg in mass (about 54 kgincluding attachments)) is placed in the rear passenger's seat.

Side collision test

Among the passenger injuries which occur in automobile collisions, side collisions cause the most damage next to frontal collisions. In this test, a trolley with a mass of 950 kg is made to collide at a speed of 55 km/h with the side of a stationary test vehicle with a dummy normally on the driver's seat. The dummy is checked for injuries to the head, chest, abdomen, and pelvis, and the results are used to evaluate the degree of passenger protection in 5 levels.
The front of the trolley,which has been made to look like a normal passenger car, has also been outfitted with a shock-absorbent aluminum honeycomb which provides a similar degree of hardness as such a vehicle.
In addition, assessment of circumstances and range of equipment has been taken from FY2008 on automobiles newly equipped with side curtain air bags.
Actual side collision accidents tend to occur at speeds lower than that of this test. Note that the results of this test do not apply to collisions at extremely high speeds, and other types of collisions such as when passengers are not wearing seatbelts, and collisions in which one of the vehicles is a large truck.

Dummy for side collision test
 The Euro SID-2 dummy is used. This dummy was developed in Europe (170 cm in height and 72 kg in mass (about 78 kg including attachments)).

* The side curtain air bag (SCA) has been designed to protect the head of passenger in a side collision, and is generally stored in a roof-rail, etc. In event of side collision, the bag blows open to expand mainly from A pillar to C pillar area along the roof-rail.

Neck injury protection for rear-end collision performance test [Newly introduced from FY2009]

Rear-end collision occurs most commonly among the passenger injuries caused by automobile collisions and most of them are neck injury.
In this test, rear-end collision shocks (velocity change(ΔV), wave shape, etc) are given to dummies placed in the driver's or front passenger's seats using testing sled which can reproduce rear-end collision. The degree of neck protection performance is judged on a scale in 4 levels based on the shock the neck suffered.
This test reproduces rear-end collision shocks when a car crushes into a parked car which is the same in mass at a rate of around 32km/h (velocity change(ΔV) of 17.6km/h). Please note that evaluations in this test may be different from actual rear-end collision accidents due to differences in collision speed, mass, passenger's posture/physical size and seat's adjustment position.
This test will be conducted at a velocity change(ΔV) of 20.0km/h from FY2012.

Dummy for neck injury protection for rear-end collision performance test
 The BioRID Ⅱ dummy is used. This dummy was developed for rear-end collision test and its specifications are similar to Hybrid Ⅲ ( 175 cm in height and 78 kg in mass (about 85 kg including attachments)).

Explanation and its result for brake performanceto refer outline of brake performance test